Crude Oil

Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.

Light Crude Oil

PropertiesUnitSpec 1Spec 2Test Method
Sp. Gr. 15.6/15.6 °C0.85750.8488ASTM D 5002
API Gravity°API33.535.21ASTM D 5002
Sulfur content%Wt1.451.69ASTM D 4294
H2S Contentppm6115IP 570
Mercaptan Contentppm118243UOP 163
Nitrogen Content%Wt0.180.08ASTM D 5762
Water & Sediment%Vol< 0.05< 0.05ASTM D 4007
Water Content%Vol< 0.025< 0.025ASTM D 4006
Salt ContentPTB94ASTM D 3230
Kinematic Viscosity @10°Cmm²/s16.5111.02ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @20°Cmm²/s10.787.51ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @40°Cmm²/s5.7354.4ASTM D 445
Pour Point°C-9-30ASTM D 5853
RVPpsi8.158.5ASTM D 3230
Asphaltene Content%Wt1.31.1IP 143
Wax Content%Wt6.26.7BP 237
Drop Melting Point of Wax°C5452IP 133
CCR%Wt4.243.4ASTM D 189
Total Acid NumbermgKOH/g0.1<0.05UOP 163
Nickel Contentppm85ASTM D 5863
Vanadium Contentppm4111ASTM D 5863
Iron Contentppm11ASTM D 5863
Lead Contentppm< 1<1ASTM D 5863
Sodium Contentppm73ASTM D 5863
Zinc Contentppm< 1<1ASTM D 5863
Copper Contentppm< 1<1ASTM D 5863

 

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Heavy Crude Oil

PropertiesUnitSpec 1Spec 2Test Method
Sp. Gr. 15.6/15.6 °C0.8750.941ASTM D 5002
API Gravity°API30.218.87ASTM D 5002
Sulfur content%Wt1.923.95ASTM D 4294
H2S Contentppm121<1IP 570
Mercaptan Contentppm18525UOP 163
Nitrogen Content%Wt0.230.19ASTM D 5762
Water & Sediment%Vol< 0.050.05ASTM D 4007
Water Content%Vol< 0.0250.05ASTM D 4006
Salt ContentPTB1025ASTM D 3230
Kinematic Viscosity @10°Cmm²/s29.071610ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @20°Cmm²/s18.4607.7ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @40°Cmm²/s9.218179.7ASTM D 445
Pour Point°C-12-27ASTM D 5853
RVPpsi6.253.5ASTM D 3230
Asphaltene Content%Wt3.48.9IP 143
Wax Content%Wt5.74.1BP 237
Drop Melting Point of Wax°C5564IP 133
CCR%Wt6.212.4ASTM D 189
Total Acid NumbermgKOH/g0.150.7UOP 163
Nickel Contentppm1430ASTM D 5863
Vanadium Contentppm73116ASTM D 5863
Iron Contentppm<12ASTM D 5863
Lead Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863
Sodium Contentppm513ASTM D 5863
Zinc Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863
Copper Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863

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Iraq Light Crude Oil

PropertiesUnitSpecificationTest Method
Density at 15°Ckg/L0.9011ASTM D 1298
API Gravity at 60f °API25.44ASTM D 287
Water by Distillation%Vol0.05ASTM D 4006
Sediment by Extraction%Wt0.015ASTM D 473
Sulfur%Wt3.705IP336
Pour Point°CASTM D5853
Salt Contentlb/1000bbl4.6ASTM D3230
Water KF%Wt1053ASTM D4928
H2S Contentppm0.63UOP 163
AciditymgKOH/g0.075ASTM D664
Mercaptan Sulfurppm88.9ASTM D3227
Kinematic Viscosity at 50°CcSt11.5581ASTM D445
Asphalthenes%Wt5.5IP143
IBP°C48ASTM D86
Distillation at 5%°C82ASTM D86
Distillation at 10%°C108ASTM D86
Distillation at 20%°C169ASTM D86
Distillation at 30%°C231ASTM D86
Distillation at 40%°C282ASTM D86
Distillation at 50%°C317ASTM D86
Distillation at 60%°C332ASTM D86
Distillation at 70%°C339ASTM D86
Distillation at 80%°C350ASTM D86
Distillation at 89%°C353ASTM D86
FBP°C355ASTM D86

 

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Iraq Heavy Crude Oil Assays

PropertiesUnitT-1AT-2T-4Test Method
Density @15°Ckg/L0.90970.91530.9135ASTM D 5002
Sp. Gr. @ 15.6/15.6°C0.91020.91580.914Conversion
API Gr. @15.6°C°API23.9623.0123.31Calculated
Sulfur Content%Wt3.343.343.25ASTM D 4294
Carbon Residue, Micro%Wt7.658.318.74ASTM D 4530
Bottom Sediment & Water%Vol0.11.350.6ASTM D 4007
Salt as NaClmg/L5.04156.3ASTM D 3230
Ash Content @550°C%Wt0.0130.0490.012ASTM D 482
Total Nitrogenppm0.140.13ASTM D 5762-01
Copperppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Ironppm11<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Nickelppm121312IP 501 (Mod.)
Vanadiumppm363736IP 501 (Mod.)
Leadppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Chromiumppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Zincppm<11<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Calciumppm5631IP 501 (Mod.)
Magnesiumppm1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Sodiumppm15<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Total Acid NumbermgKOH/g0.3020.0260.748ASTM D 664
Vapor Pressure (DVPE)kPa11.220.76.6ASTM D 5191
Pour Point (max/Upper)°C-39-24< -42ASTM D 5853
Pour Point (min/Upper)°C< -42< -42ASTM D 5853
Flash Point°C< -5< -5< -5ASTM D 93 (Mod.)
Asphaltenes%Wt5.24.825.5ASTM D 3279
Wax Content%Wt0.50.7 maxUOP 46
Kinematic Viscosity @26.7°CcSt31.0340.1131.97ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @37.8°CcSt19.3225.0919.55ASTM D 446

 

 

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Heavy Crude Oil

PropertiesUnitSpec 1Spec 2Test Method
Sp. Gr. 15.6/15.6 °C0.8750.941ASTM D 5002
API Gravity°API30.218.87ASTM D 5002
Sulfur content%Wt1.923.95ASTM D 4294
H2S Contentppm121<1IP 570
Mercaptan Contentppm18525UOP 163
Nitrogen Content%Wt0.230.19ASTM D 5762
Water & Sediment%Vol< 0.050.05ASTM D 4007
Water Content%Vol< 0.0250.05ASTM D 4006
Salt ContentPTB1025ASTM D 3230
Kinematic Viscosity @10°Cmm²/s29.071610ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @20°Cmm²/s18.4607.7ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @40°Cmm²/s9.218179.7ASTM D 445
Pour Point°C-12-27ASTM D 5853
RVPpsi6.253.5ASTM D 3230
Asphaltene Content%Wt3.48.9IP 143
Wax Content%Wt5.74.1BP 237
Drop Melting Point of Wax°C5564IP 133
CCR%Wt6.212.4ASTM D 189
Total Acid NumbermgKOH/g0.150.7UOP 163
Nickel Contentppm1430ASTM D 5863
Vanadium Contentppm73116ASTM D 5863
Iron Contentppm<12ASTM D 5863
Lead Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863
Sodium Contentppm513ASTM D 5863
Zinc Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863
Copper Contentppm<1<1ASTM D 5863

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Iraq Light Crude Oil

PropertiesUnitSpecificationTest Method
Density at 15°Ckg/L0.9011ASTM D 1298
API Gravity at 60f °API25.44ASTM D 287
Water by Distillation%Vol0.05ASTM D 4006
Sediment by Extraction%Wt0.015ASTM D 473
Sulfur%Wt3.705IP336
Pour Point°CASTM D5853
Salt Contentlb/1000bbl4.6ASTM D3230
Water KF%Wt1053ASTM D4928
H2S Contentppm0.63UOP 163
AciditymgKOH/g0.075ASTM D664
Mercaptan Sulfurppm88.9ASTM D3227
Kinematic Viscosity at 50°CcSt11.5581ASTM D445
Asphalthenes%Wt5.5IP143
IBP°C48ASTM D86
Distillation at 5%°C82ASTM D86
Distillation at 10%°C108ASTM D86
Distillation at 20%°C169ASTM D86
Distillation at 30%°C231ASTM D86
Distillation at 40%°C282ASTM D86
Distillation at 50%°C317ASTM D86
Distillation at 60%°C332ASTM D86
Distillation at 70%°C339ASTM D86
Distillation at 80%°C350ASTM D86
Distillation at 89%°C353ASTM D86
FBP°C355ASTM D86

 

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Iraq Heavy Crude Oil Assays

PropertiesUnitT-1AT-2T-4Test Method
Density @15°Ckg/L0.90970.91530.9135ASTM D 5002
Sp. Gr. @ 15.6/15.6°C0.91020.91580.914Conversion
API Gr. @15.6°C°API23.9623.0123.31Calculated
Sulfur Content%Wt3.343.343.25ASTM D 4294
Carbon Residue, Micro%Wt7.658.318.74ASTM D 4530
Bottom Sediment & Water%Vol0.11.350.6ASTM D 4007
Salt as NaClmg/L5.04156.3ASTM D 3230
Ash Content @550°C%Wt0.0130.0490.012ASTM D 482
Total Nitrogenppm0.140.13ASTM D 5762-01
Copperppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Ironppm11<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Nickelppm121312IP 501 (Mod.)
Vanadiumppm363736IP 501 (Mod.)
Leadppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Chromiumppm<1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Zincppm<11<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Calciumppm5631IP 501 (Mod.)
Magnesiumppm1<1<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Sodiumppm15<1IP 501 (Mod.)
Total Acid NumbermgKOH/g0.3020.0260.748ASTM D 664
Vapor Pressure (DVPE)kPa11.220.76.6ASTM D 5191
Pour Point (max/Upper)°C-39-24< -42ASTM D 5853
Pour Point (min/Upper)°C< -42< -42ASTM D 5853
Flash Point°C< -5< -5< -5ASTM D 93 (Mod.)
Asphaltenes%Wt5.24.825.5ASTM D 3279
Wax Content%Wt0.50.7 maxUOP 46
Kinematic Viscosity @26.7°CcSt31.0340.1131.97ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity @37.8°CcSt19.3225.0919.55ASTM D 446